Sunday, 27 September 2015

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (- c. 750)(Walsh)


From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 98 ff:

ARCHIEPISCOPAL SEE OF DUBLIN

Dublin was only an episcopal see until the pallium was first conferred on its prelate by John Paparo cardinal legate at the council of Kells in 1152 at that time the see of Cashel ranked before Dublin as St Malachy O'Moore sought the pallium for the sees of Armagh and Cashel only and in the distribution by the cardinal of the palliums to the four dioceses of Ireland which are now archbishopricks, the see of Dublin was the third in the series. Dublin is now reckoned as the second see of Ireland and its prelate is styled primate of Ireland in accordance with the directions of the holy see anxious as it was to terminate the controversy that so often arose between the primates of Armagh and archbishops of Dublin regarding the right of precedence as might be observed in the history of the prelates of Armagh. Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland, has two cathedrals, Christ Church and St Patrick's, a peculiarity in which Saragossa alone participates. Both have been forcibly seized by those intruders whom the persecutors of England have sent amongst the people of our country to plunder and spoliate while the descendants of the pious founders and the steadfast adherents of the ancient faith were obliged to worship their God in the most obscure lanes and alleys of the city. Christ Church was erected about the year 1038 and St. Patrick's in 1190 on the site of an old church which was said to have been erected by St. Patrick both cathedrals are situated within the city and liberties of Dublin.

To the see of Dublin was united that of Glendalough in the year 1214 on the death of William Piro the last recognized bishop the union of those sees was ratified by Pope Innocent III on the 25th of February 1215 and again Honorius III confirms the acts of his predecessors in this affair. A controversy having arisen between the chapter of St. Patrick's and Robert de Bedford the dean of Glendalough and afterwards bishop of Lismore the subject was referred by the Pope to Felix O'Ruadan, archbishop of Tuam, who by his decree pronounced in favor of the chapter of Glendalough and which the Pope HonoriusIII also confirmed. The archbishops of Dublin did not obtain quiet possession of the see of Glendalough until a surrender of it was made in the Cathedral of St Patrick by Dennis White who had been the bishop in opposition to the regal authority. Since his surrender Glendalough is become a desert the mountains which gird the valley cast a gloom over its scene contracting every prospect to the eye which looks on the venerable ruins of the sanctuary of St. Kevin its awful and melancholy appearance reminds the beholder that this spot was particularly adapted for a life of prayer and meditation. By the union of Glendalough with Dublin the far famed city memorable for its religious edifices has gone not only to decay but has become the receptacle of robbers and outlaws.

St. Patrick is said to have blessed Dublin and to have foretold its future greatness and prosperity. Saint Livinus, bishop of Dublin, was a native of Ireland aud according to some of royal extraction. He was born in the reign of Colman Rimhe who was king of Ireland in the beginning of the seventh century. Livinus is said to have been instructed by Benignus a priest and after the death of his master to have retired into a desert with three companions Foillan, Elias and Kilian, where he employed his time in transcribing books in order to procure sustenance for himself and the poor. He passed over into Britain and remained five years under the direction of Augustine who ordained him priest and having returned to his native country he was promoted to the dignity of bishop but his see is not known though he is accounted as bishop of Dublin. Urged by zeal for the conversion of those who knew not the true God he set out from Ireland with the former companions of his solitude. Arrived in Belgium having left the care of his Church in Ireland to the Archdeacon Sylvanus he was received with great kindness by Floribert abbot of two monasteries at Ghent one of which was called that of St. Bavo who was buried there and for whom Livinus had a great veneration and whose epitaph he also wrote at the request of Floribert. On the tomb of St. Bavo he celebrated daily the sacrifice of the mass during thirty days that he remained. Having performed those acts of charity and devotion he proceeded on his mission through Flanders and Brabant Berna and Craphraildis two sisters received him with great attention and he there restored the sight of Ingilbert the son of Craph aildis which was lost for thirteen years. He received from the people much opposition and vexation of which he complained in his epistle to Floribert and in which he declared his hope and foreknowledge of his suffering martyrdom. Soon after he was attacked by a multitude of Pagans at Escha near Hauthem one of whom was particularly conspicuous in torturing him Walbert extracted his tongue with nippers and threw it to the dogs but it was miraculously restored. Having cruelly beaten and tortured him he was decapitated on the 12th of November 656. His hostess Craphraildis and her son Brixius who was baptized by the Saint a few days before they also put to death. The remains of St Livinus and Brixius were deposited in one grave by his disciples at Hauthem and near them those of Craphraildis. The memory of Livinus is still greatly revered in Belgium.

The poetical epistle of Livinus as well as the epitaph of St Bavo do honor to the country of his birth. In the decree of Pope Benedict XTV dated the 1st of July 1747 express mention is made of Livinus as bishop of Dublin.

St. Wiro, a native of Ireland the son of Cuan the son of Lugid is said to have been of an ancient family in Corobaschin County of Clare and of which St. Senanus of Enniscathy was sprung. Wiro is said to have travelled to Rome and to have been there consecrated bishop on his return to have governed some see which he afterwards resigned that he might lead a more secluded life He repaired to Gaul where he was graciously received by Pepin Heristall who regarded him with veneration and who made his confession to him barefoot Pepin assigned him a dwelling at Mons Petri now Odilieberg in the diocese of Liege where he died on the 8th of May but the year of his decease is not known. According to Harris his death was in 650 but at this time Pepin was not vested with great power until 680. We may then place his death later than this year. He was buried in the oratory which had erected and in consequence of its collegiate church having transferred to Ruremond a part of the saint's remains were hither and another portion reverentially preserved at Utrecht. He called bishop of Dublin. It was usual with foreigners to assign to Dublin as it became the capital of Ireland some bishops who had to the Continent.

St Disibod was born in Ireland of a noble family and was remarkable for his genius and learning. He was ordained priest in the year of his age and soon after elected bishop and though Dublin is assigned as his see there is not sufficient authority to sustain the assertion. Having governed his see ten years he was driven from it by the insolence of the people and having resigned in 675 he abandoned his native country and associating with him three learned and devout men Gisualdus, Clement and Sallust travelled into Germany where he moved about preaching the Gospel for ten years at last he came to a high woody mountain which the owner of the country conferred upon him and there he settled and practised the life of a hermit many the Benedictine order flocked to him and on this mountain he erected a monastery which was called Mount Disibod. He lived thirty years in exercises of great austerity and there died worn out with age on the 8th of July in the eighty first year of his existence. Hildegardis a nun who was educated at Mount Disibod or Disenburg under the abbess Jutta wrote his life which was published by Surius. The year of his death is not known.

Gualafer or Gallagher is mentioned as bishop of Dublin of whom nothing is known except having baptized his successor St Rumold.

St. Rumold was the son of David an Irish prince and was heir to his father's principality. By Gualafir he was instructed in learning and virtue and through piety having taken a journey to Rome he abandoned his right to his inheritance. He passed first into Britain thence into Gaul preaching wherever he went the Gospel of Christ. It is said in his life written by Theodoric and published by Surius that before engaging on his pilgrimage that he was consecrated for the see of Dublin. He travelled over the Alps and reached Rome where he received the apostolic approbation of his labors. Having made some delay in Rome he left the city repassed into Gaul and came to Mechlin where Odo or Ado count of the place together with his wife received him with great kindness and prevailed on him to settle there. He assigned him a place called Ulmus from the numerous elm trees growing in it. Here he founded a monastery. Mechlin being raised into an episcopal see Rumoldus was made its first bishop.

The holy bishop planted the true faith everywhere about Mechlin with such zeal and earnestness that he is justly styled their apostle. At length two villains one of them thinking that he was possessed of money the other through revenge because the saint reprimanded him for living in adultery attacked him and having severely wounded him in the head put an end to his existence on the 24th of June 775 and in order to conceal their crime threw his body into a river and on its being discovered by a heavenly light Count Odo removed it and gave it an honorable interment in St. Stephen's church. His remains were afterwards translated to a church in Mechlin dedicated to his memory and there preserved in a splendid silver shrine. His festival is observed on the 3d of July as the day of his martyrdom took place on the day sacred to John the Baptist. A shrine constructed in 1369 for his relics cost 66,000 florins. In the wars of 1580 it was broken up and sold Norris when commanding the English troops rifled the cathedral of Mechlin destroyed the shrine and scattered the relics of St. Rumold but the relics were collected again deposited in a new shrine of far more elegant design and about one third the cost of the first. It is exhibited in the cathedral.

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