Friday, 6 May 2016

Finglas Abbey (Walsh)

Finglas Abbey

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xliv p. 429ff:

Finglass in the barony of Castleknock two miles north of Dublin. According to Archdall this monastery was founded in the early ages ot the Irish Church and probably by St. Patrick himself. One would suppose that the disciples of St. Patrick were required for the wants of the mission nor can it be imagined where postulants for admission to all those establishments could be procured all at once.

Saint Kenicus is called abbot of Finglass. His festival was observed here on the 12th of October. Saint Florentius whose feast is observed on the 21st of January according to Archdall is buried in Finglass.

There is a St. Florentius who was contemporary with St. Germain of Paris who died in 576. Florence was a priest and an Irishman of great reputation and whose memory is revered at Amboise in France. Dagobert, son of Sigebert, king of Austrasia, had been sent when a child to a monastery in Ireland after his father's death A.D. 655 by Grimoald, mayor of the palace. The monastery in which he was placed is said to have been that of Slane. Dagobert remained in Ireland until about the year 670 when he was recalled to his own country and received a part of Austrasia from Childeric II. On the death of Childeric he became sovereign in 674 of all Austrasia by the name of Dagobert II and ruled over that country until he was assassinated in 679. After his return to Austrasia we find some distinguished natives of Ireland, particularly St. Argobast and St. Florentius and who is different it seems from the saint of that name revered in Amboise. Argobast was living in a retired manner at Suraburg when he was raised to the bishopric of Strasburgh about the year 673 by king Dagobert. At Suraburgh, a monastery was erected in honor of St. Argobast. Being a very holy man he is said to have possessed a considerable share of learning and to have written some ecclesiastical tracts. St Argobast died on the 21st of July 679 and was succeeded in the same year by his friend and companion St. Florentius. Florentius took up his abode in the forest of Hasle in Alsace near the place where the river Bruscha flows from the Vosges. Here was founded a monastery either by himself or for him by Dagobert by whom he was greatly esteemed. It is said that he restored her sight and speech to the daughter of that king. While bishop of Strasburgh he founded according to some accounts the monastery of St. Thomas in that city for Scots or Irish. Having governed the see of Strasburgh eight years St. Florentius died on the 7th of November A.D. 687.

A.D. 795 died the abbot Dubhlitter.
A.D. 865 died Robertach bishop and chronographer of Finglass.  If Dublin had been a see as early as some pretend it to have been it would be absurd to have a bishop at Clondalkin and another at Finglass. There is a remarkable well at Finglass dedicated to St. Patrick. Tradition affirms that it was formerly celebrated through the miracles wrought there.

Sunday, 17 April 2016

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (1294 - 1362)(Walsh)

Passage to the Synod Hall, Dublin

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 115 ff:

William de Hotham was confirmed in the archbishoprick by the provision of the pope who annulled the election of Thomas de Chadsworth. William was born in England educated at Paris where he took the degree of doctor of divinity in 1280, afterwards became a Dominican friar and was twice provincial of the order in England. As ambassador at Rome from King Edward I, he executed his business with great eclat being inferior to none in learning virtue integrity and judgment in the management of affairs the pope gave him authority to select any prelate whom he would choose as his consecrator. It seems he was consecrated in 1298 at Ghent by Anthony Beake, bishop of Durham. Having been the mediator of a truce between Philip IV of France and Edward I of England, which continued for two years, he returned to Rome with the articles of the treaty which the pope had established and on his journey homewards through Burgundy he became ill at Dijon where he died in a monastery of his order on the 27th of August in the same year. His body was conveyed into England and buried in a Dominican monastery of London. Bale, though aspersing his character and that of the pope who promoted him, as if the mediation of gold was all powerful, allows that he was a man highly extolled by the writers of his own order as a person of great spirit acute parts and possessed of a singular dexterity in conciliating the favor of men.

Richard de Ferings, who had been archdeacon of Canterbury during fifteen years before, succeeded in 1229, the king objecting to receive his fealty because of some clauses in the letters provisional of the pope which he considered prejudicial to the royal prerogative. Richard obtained the temporals by renouncing any benefit therefrom. Immediately after his consecration the prelate applied himself to compose the misunderstanding between the cathedrals of Christ church and St Patrick's. The agreement was reduced to writing and fortified by the common seal of each chapter, with a penalty annexed. The heads of it are as follow: That the archbishops of Dublin should be consecrated and enthroned in Christ church; That both churches should be called cathedral and metropolitan; That Christ church as the greater the mother and the elder should have the precedence in all rights and concerns of the see; and that the cross, mitre and ring of every archbishop, wherever he died, should be deposited therein; and lastly, That each church should have the alternate sepulture as a right of the bodies of the archbishops unless otherwise directed by their wills. Having thus, as he thought composed, the jealousies that existed between the cathedrals, the archbishop resided for the most part abroad, having constituted Thomas de Chadsworth his vicar general. His absence having operated injuriously to the affairs of his province, he at length became sensible of the dereliction of his duty and on his return from Rome, with the object of retrieving the detriment, he was seized with a sudden illness of which he died on the 18th of October 1306.

John Leech succeeded to the see in 1310 by the influence of King Edward II, to whom he was chaplain and almoner. Havering, who was bishop elect and confirmed without consecration enjoyed the profits of the see four years and then voluntarily resigned. On the application of John Leech, Pope Clement V issued his bull for founding an university for scholars in Dublin but a design so creditable to the memory of Leech was frustrated by the revival of the contest concerning the primatial right. Archbishop Leech was constituted lord treasurer of Ireland in the close of the year 1312 and died soon after on the 10th of August 1313 and was buried in Westminster.

In the meantime, the usual dispute arose between the Cathedrals regarding the appointment of a successor, one party declaring for Walter Thornbury, chaunter of St. Patrick's, and chancellor of Ireland, the other for Alexander de Bicknor, the descendant of an English family, then prebendary of Maynooth, and treasurer of Ireland. Walter on his election embarked for France where the pope then held his court but on the night of his departure a storm arose and Walter with a hundred and fifty six others perished. Alexander de Bicknor took a journey to Lyons with the king's letters earnestly recommending him to the pope as a man of profound judgment morality integrity and circumspection in spiritual and temporal affairs, yet his confirmation was postponed, as the sovereign required his personal services. At last John XXI confirmed his appointment to the see and Alexander de Bicknor was consecrated at Avignon by Nicholas de Prato, cardinal of Ostia, on the 22d of July 1317. He arrived in Dublin as archbishop and lord justice of Ireland, and was received by clergy and people with great acclamations of joy on the 9th of October 1318. Pope John XXII wrote to him, the archbishop of Cashel, and to the dean of Dublin, to excommunicate Robert Bruce and his adherents and also his brother, Edward, if they did not make restitution for the ravages murders robberies and burning of churches committed by them throughout the kingdom. In 1320 he founded an university in St. Patrick's, Dublin, which was confirmed by Pope John XXII public lectures were established but the deficiency of the endowment rendered the project abortive. The heretics of Kilkenny who were obliged to fly from the authority of their bishop took shelter in the archdiocese of Dublin and were protected from prosecution by de Bicknor. Ledred, bishop of Ossory, who was kept in confinement seventeen days by these heretics would have appealed to Rome in support of his prosecution but he found considerable difficulty even in getting out of Ireland in consequence of the steps taken by de Bicknor to prevent him. The bishop of Ossory did however pass over to France where he was detained by the power of King Edward. In this exile he was forced to remain nine years and in the interim the Archbishop de Bicknor seized the profits of the see of Ossory until he was compelled by the pope to withdraw his metropolitan power over the see of Ossory and this interdict lay over the diocese of Dublin until de Bicknor's death.

In 1349 the contest relative to the primacy was renewed with vehemence between de Bicknor and the primate of Armagh. On the 14th of July in the same year de Bicknor died having governed the see almost thirty two years. Ware says of him that he was not inferior to any of his predecessors in point of probity or learning but let the reader judge of his sheltering heretics and maltreating the bishop who prosecuted them.

John de St .Paul, prebendary of Donnington in the cathedral of Fork and canon of York, was by the pope advanced to the archbishoprick on the 12th of September 1350. De St. Paul was appointed chancellor of Ireland with a salary of 40 per annum, an office which he held six years. In 1351 the pope commissioned him to make inquiry regarding those who were accused of heresy and who fled into the diocese of Dublin and to bring them to punishment according to the canons. He thereupon restored the jurisdiction of Dublin over the see of Ossory. Having sat in the see about thirteen years he died on the 9th of September 1362 and was buried in Christ church. This prelate much enlarged and beautified the church of the Holy Trinity having built the choir at his own expense.

Thursday, 10 March 2016

St. Olave's Abbey (Walsh)

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xliv p. 420-21:

The abbey of St Olave. King Henry II having granted the city of Dublin to a colony from Bristol this monastery was built by them for such of their countrymen as would be inclined to embrace the order of St. Augustine and called it from the abbey of the same order and name in their native town. It stood in Castle street where was erected the house of Sir James Ware. Part of the possessions of this monastery was granted to Edmond Darcey of Jordanstown to hold the same for the term of thirty years at the annual rent of one pound five shillings Irish money.

Wednesday, 10 February 2016

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (1180 - 1294)(Walsh)

Medieval Walls of Dublin with St. Audoen's Tower

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 110 ff:

John Comyn succeeded and the English monarch who persecuted the holy prelate St Lawrence for his ardent attachment to the land of his birth no longer able to appropriate the revenues of the see resolved that an office of so much importance should not be entrusted to an Irishman who perhaps might be actuated by the same patriotic motives as St Lawrence and might more openly assume an hostility to the rule of the British monarch Accordingly on the monarch's earnest recommendation his chaplain John Comyn a native of England and a Benedictine monk of Evesham a man of eloquence and learning was elected on the 6th of September 1181 to the archbishopric of Dublin by some of the clergy who had assembled at Evesham for the purpose John was not then a priest but was in the following year ordained one at Velletri and on the 21st of March 1181 was consecrated by Pope Lucius III who took under his especial protection the see of Dublin and by bull dated the 13th of April 1182 and by virtue and authority of the holy canons ordered and decreed that no archbishop or bishop should without the assent of the prelate of Dublin presume to hold within the diocese of Dublin any conference or entertain any ecclesiastical causes or matters of the same diocese unless enjoined by the Roman Pontiff and his legate From this privilege which was introduced as appears against the claims of Canterbury arose the controversy regarding the primatial right of visitation which distracted both provinces for centuries afterwards The Primate of Armagh contended that he had notwithstanding this exemption the right of having his cross borne before him of holding appeals and visitations in the whole province of Leinster Though a bishop is bound to residence by the canons John was absent from his church three years and at length arrived in September 1184 having been despatched by the King to prepare for the reception of Prince John earl of Morton whom his royal parent had resolved to send into Ireland John as an English baron received the Prince at Waterford and obtained from him a grant of the bishopric of Glenda loch with all its appurtenances in lands manors churches tithes fisheries liberties to hold to him and his successors for ever but this union was not to take place during the life of William Piro then bishop of Glendaloch In the year 1186 archbishop Comyn held a provincial synod in Dublin in the church of the Holy Trinity The canons then enacted were confirmed under the leaden seal of Pope Urban III and are extant In 1189 this prelate rebuilt the cathedral of St Patrick erected it into a collegiate church and endowed it with suitable possessions plac in it thirteen prebendaries he also repaired and enlarged the choir of Christ church cathedral founded and endowed the nunnery of Grace Dieu in the county of Dublin for regular canonesses of St Augustine whom he removed from the more ancient convent of Lusk In 1197 Hamo de Valois justiciary of Ireland under Prince John finding the government embarrassed through the want of a treasury harassed John Comyn by seizing on several lands belonging to his see De Valois having enriched himself by plundering this see and also the laity was recalled from the government in consequence of a papal remonstrance in September 1198 Hamo de Valois struck with remorse for his spoliation made a grant of twenty ploughlands to the archbishop and his successors for ever The appeal to Rome having excited the anger of Prince John the prelate was not for some time received into favor John Comyn died on the 25th of October 1214 having survived the reconciliation about six years and was buried in Christ church where a noble monument was erected to his memory.

Henry de Loundres succeeded in the year 1213 He was archdeacon of Stafford and was consecrated in the beginning of 1214 in the following year he was cited to Rome to assist at a general council On his arrival there Pope Innocent HI ratified the union of Glendaloch with Dublin and in 1216 confirmed the possessions of this see in 1217 constituted legate of Ireland by the Pope he convened a synod at Dublin in which according to the annals of St Mary's abbey he established many things profitable to the Irish church In 1219 Henry de Loundres assumed the second time the administration of Ireland Jeoffrey de Marescis the governor having been recalled In 1228 by writ directed to the lords justices he received the custody of all vacant archbishoprics and bishoprics in Ireland the profits to be received by John de St John bishop of Ferns and treasurer of Ireland and by de Theurville archdeacon of Dublin and to be by them paid to the archbishop until the debts and obligations due by the crown to him should be satisfied This prelate erected the collegiate church of St Patrick into a cathedral united as Allen says with the Cathedral of the Holy Trinity in one spouse saving to the other Church the prerogative of honor Having filled the see fifteen years he died about the beginning of July 1228 and was buried in Christ Church Of his tomb there is no trace This English prelate obtained the disgraceful epithet of Scorch villain Having summoned his tenants to give an account of the titles by which they held their lands they appeared and produced their deeds The bishop instantly possessed himself of them and consigned them to the fire to the injury of the unsuspecting farmers Whereupon they are said to have given him the opprobrious epithet alluded to.

Luke Dean of St Martin le Grand London treasurer of the king's wardrobe was through the influence of Hubert de Burgh Earl of Kent whose chaplain he had been elected in 1228 but his election had been declared null at Rome whereupon he was reelected though not confirmed by the Pope until the year 1230 when his patron the Earl of Kent incurred the king's displeasure and was cruelly persecuted and deserted by all his friends The Archbishop Luke mindful of the obligations of gratitude adhered to his interest and obtained by his perseverance in his cause milder terms from the sovereign than were originally intended In 1150 the archbishops bishops and clergy of Ireland who were of Irish birth had in a synod enacted a decree that no Englishman born should be admitted a canon in any of their churches A remonstrance being forwarded to the pope a bull was directed to them in which they were commanded to rescind the said decree within a month In 1258 a contest arose between the chapters of the two cathedrals concerning the election of the archbishops. Luke strove to adjust the matter by prescribing that the place of election should be only in the church of the Holy Trinity the dean and chapter of St Patrick's by joint votes assisting in the election but the latter not content with this adjustment the affair was brought before Innocent IV as a special injustice to the chapter of St Patrick's The pope empowered by bull dated the 20th of May the bishop of Emly the bishop and the dean of Limerick to settle the controversy About this time arose also the contest with Reyner archbishop of Armagh concerning the right of visitation In the latter part of his life Archbishop Luke suffered severely by a malady in his eyes which brought on a total loss of sight and eventually hastened his death in December 1225 He was buried in Christ church with his predecessor John Comyn.

Fulk de Sandford succeeded in 1256. Both chapters elected Ralph of Norwich canon of St Patrick's and treasurer of Ireland but he was betrayed at Rome by his agents as Matthew Paris states He was a witty pleasant companion and one who loved good cheer He was it seems too secular and worldly to be consecrated His election was therefore set aside and Fulk de Sandford archdeacon of Middlesex and treasurer of St Paul's London was by the pope's bull declared archbishop of Dublin In 1261. Fulk de Sandford took a journey to Rome on business connected with his see the management of it during his absence having been committed by the pope to the bishops of Lismore and Waterford On the 6th of May 1271 Archbishop Fulk died in his manor of Finglass his body was conveyed to St Patrick's church and deposited in the chapel of the Virgin Mary.

John de Derlington was declared the archbishop of Dublin by the pope who annulled the elections of William de la Corner by the prior and convent of the Holy Trinity and of Fromund le Brun by the dean and chapter of St Patrick's John was a doctor of divinity a Dominican friar and confessor to the late King Henry EH and had been his ambassador to Pope Nicholas in 1278 He was consecrated in Waltham Abbey on the 8th of September 1279 by John archbishop of Canterbury Matthew Paris describes him as a prelate of great authority because of his learning and wisdom Bale calls him a mercenary hireling and no shepherd and says that he died blasted by divine vengeance He was collector of the Peter pence both in England and Ireland to the pontiffs John XXI Nicholas HI and Martin IV His death took place suddenly in London on the 29th of March 1284 in the fifth year after his consecration in a Dominican convent and there buried John de Sandford was a native of England brother to Archbishop Fulk dean of St Patrick's a Franciscan friar and for some time es cheator of Ireland He was canonically elected by the chapter of St Patrick's and being confirmed by the king he was consecrated in the church of the Holy Trinity on palm Sunday 1286 In his early life he came to Ireland as vicar general to his brother and was presented by the baroness of Naas to the rectory of Maynooth John was a prelate in great reputation for learning wisdom and discretion He died in October 1294 having been seized with a grievous distemper His body was conveyed from England at the desire of the Canons of St Patrick's and buried there in his brother's monument.

Saturday, 30 January 2016

Our First Dublin Pilgrimage of 2016


On a glorious January morning, despite very short notice, members and friends of St. Laurence's Catholic Heritage Association make a pilgrimage north to St. Fintan's Church, Sutton.  The Mass was offered for a member recently deceased.  The Church is in the lea of the beautiful Head of Howth and looks across the northern stretches of Dublin Bay towards Bull Island and the harbour.  It was a magnificent way to begin our pilgrimage year in the Archdiocese of Dublin, which had ended in 2015 with the celebration of Mass in the Extraordinary Form by His Grace the Archbishop.  

Thursday, 21 January 2016

Latin Mass Pilgrimage to Sutton

On Saturday, 30th January, at 12 noon, there will be a Traditional Latin Mass in St. Fintan's Church, Sutton, Dublin 13.  You are cordially invited to attend.

Sunday, 17 January 2016

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (1161 - 1180)(Walsh)

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 106 ff:

St. Lawrence O'Toole, was the next archbishop of Dublin, was the youngest son of the hereditary lord of Imaile, the head of one of the septs eligible to the kingdom of Leinster, and which also maintained the privilege of electing the bishops and abbots of Glendaloch, even after the union of this see with Dublin. The father's principality was situated in the district of Wicklow, to which he was also attached in the maternal line, his mother having been of the O'Byrnes, a family revered by the Irish nation. St. Lawrence received his education in the school of the romantic valley of Glendaloch.

At the early age of ten years he was distinguished beyond his contemporaries and the ardor of his patriotic disposition soon manifested itself for, on receiving him as a hostage from his father, the cruel tyrant Mac Murrough, who oppressed the most worthy chieftains of Leinster, was induced to avert the worst inflictions of his abused power. When under the subjection of this tyrant, he began to endure persecution in perfect consonance with the cruel character of Mac Murrough. He was confined in a barren and unsheltered spot and only allowed a quality of food which would preserve his existence for torture and illtreatment treatment. Having heard of the sufferings to which his son was subjected, and fully aware that remonstrances or entreaty would be ineffectual, perhaps would be responded to with more barbarity, the distracted parent, by a successful sally from his mountain fastness, captured twelve of Mac Murrough's soldiers whom he threatened instantly to put to death unless his son was restored to his home. The threat was effective and the father once more embraced his beloved son in the Valley of Glendaloch.

In this valley, which nature marked as her favorite retreat for study and contemplation, Lawrence renewed his studies and resigning the claims of birth and inheritance devoted his talents to the service of religion and gave such preeminent signs of his knowledge, piety and purity that he was, in his twenty fifth year, at the solicitation of clergy and people, chosen to preside over the Abbey of Glendaloch. His charity to the poor during four successive years of distress was conspicuous and, by his uniform rectitude, he confounded the efforts of calumny, and by his firm yet merciful superintendence of his charge, converted the district from being a wicked waste to a state of moral and religious cultivation.

When the bishop of the see, Giolla na Naomh, died, Lawrence was at once chosen to fill the vacant chair but Lawrence, excusing himself on the fewness of his years, declined the honor which was intended. However, Providence was reserving him for a more exalted sphere of action for, on the death of Gregory, the archbishop of Dublin, he was elected his successor, a promotion which he would also have declined were he not induced to accede by the representations of the good he might accomplish. He was consecrated in Christ Church Dublin AD 1162 by Gelasius, archbishop of Armagh, assisted by many bishops and, thus, was discontinued the custom which the Danes introduced, of sending the bishops of their cities to Canterbury for consecration.

The Archbishop Lawrence assumed the habit of the regular canons of Aroasia, an abbey that was founded in the diocese of Arras about eighty years previously and justly celebrated for sanctity and discipline, in order that he might the more effectually engage his clergy of the cathedral to adopt the same rule. He caused the poor, sometimes forty in number, sometimes more, to be fed every day in his presence. The rich he entertained with becoming splendor, yet he never partook of the luxuries of the table. When the duties of his station would permit, he retired to the scene of his early training and, removed from worldly intercourse, his spirit communed with his God in the cave in which S. Kevin inflicted his voluntary chastisements.

In 1167 he assisted at the council which King Roderick assembled at Athboy and, though its object was to obtain more satisfactory and indisputable acknowledgment of the sovereignty of the monarch and to calculate the amount of aid he might expect in resisting the auxiliaries of Mac Murrough whom he had expelled from his throne, yet the council passed many ordinances relative to the privileges of churches and clergy and also the regulation of public morality and religious discipline. As legate he also presided at a synod held in Clonfert AD 1170.

The Welsh adventurers having invaded the kingdom, the prelate of Dublin firmly adhered to the independence of his country and encouraged the inhabitants of Dublin to make a vigorous defence but his efforts were unsuccessful, for the citizens, dismayed by the martial array and discipline of the invaders, entreated their prelate to become the mediator of peace, and while passing through the lines of the besiegers with this view and the terms being under discussion, Raymond le Gros and Milo de Cogan, with a party of young and fiery spirits, scaled the walls and, having possessed the city, committed frightful carnage. The charity of the archbishop was eminently conspicuous on this mournful occasion. At the risk of his own life he traversed over the streets of the metropolis protesting against the ruin which he could not control, from the invader's grasp he snatched the panting body and administered the consolations of religion to the dead, the hasty service of a grave and to the wretched survivors all that their necessities could require or his means afford.

On other occasions, his love of his country's cause prompted him to espouse every effort by which her independence might be reasserted. Having been sent to England in 1175 along with Catholicus O'Duffy, archbishop of Tuam, as the representatives of Roderick O'Connor, the monarch of Ireland, to arrange the terms of a treaty between him and the king of England, he visited the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket at Canterbury, and there narrowly escaped the hands of an insane individual who supposed that he would perform a meritorious action by assimilating his fate with the martyred prelate of Canterbury. While celebrating Mass, the maniac rushed upon him and inflicted grievous wounds upon his head. The king on hearing of the circumstance would have put the offender to death but the archbishop interceded and his life was spared. And when an ulcer in the foot terminated the life of Strongbow, St. Lawrence attended his obsequies, forgetting in the hopes that point to everlasting life, the desolation which his ruthless and savage career inflicted on the flock which was entrusted to his charge.

The extraordinary death of Strongbow is ascribed to the vengeance of Heaven for his sacrileges towards the churches of Saints Columba, Bridget and other saints whose shrines he had violated. He saw, as he thought, St. Bridget in the act of slaying him. In the Annals of Innisfallen he is described as the greatest destroyer of the clergy and laity that came to Ireland since the time of Turgesius, the Danish tyrant. The father in law of Strongbow, Mac Murrough, died in 1171 of an intolerable disease. He became putrid while living and died without the eucharist and extreme unction as his evil deeds deserved. Adrian IV, the Pontiff who authorised the second Henry of England to annex Ireland to his crown, died by swallowing a fly in a cup of water. In 1177 Cardinal Vivian presided as legate at a council held in Dublin where the right of the English monarch in virtue of the Pope's authority was further inculcated. There is, however, no evidence that the archbishop of Dublin took part in this proceeding.

In 1179 Lawrence with some other Irish prelates proceeded to Rome to attend the second general council of Lateran. On passing through England King Henry exacted from them an oath that they would not prejudice him or his empire in the progress of their mission. While at Rome, Lawrence was appointed legate of Ireland. In 1180 he again travelled out of Ireland with the son of Roderick O'Connor, whom he placed as a hostage in the hands of Henry II, then sojourning in Normandy. There he was detained by the King whose displeasure he had incurred through making representations to Rome of the harsh and cruel Anglo Irish government. Seeing the land of his birth and the patrimony of his ancestors become the inheritance of strangers, he labored to avert the evils that were permitted to exist under the name of English rule and to place his country, which its own internal divisions weakened and left an easy prey to the hardy adventurer, under the lawful protection of the English sovereign and rescue it from the despotism of English officials. The restraints thus put upon him unjustly hastened his dissolution. Sickness seized him in Normandy and anxious, as he was aware of his approaching demise, to close his days in the peaceful and silent cloister, he repaired to the monastery of Regular Canons at Eu and there expired on the 14th of November 1180. Even on his deathbed he despatched a monk of the brotherhood to implore peace for Ireland and the assent of the king was communicated before his death but peace was not the object of the sovereign of England.

Immediately after the burial of the archbishop at Eu, Henry II dispatched Jeoffrey de la Hay, his chaplain, into Ireland to seize the revenues of the see which he retained for a year. The remains of the holy prelate were placed in a shrine before the altar of the martyr Leodegarius but, when the prelate was canonized in 1218 by Pope Honorius III, they were translated with great solemnity and placed over the high altar and there preserved in a silver shrine. St. Lawrence is the patron saint of the diocese of Dublin.

Sunday, 22 November 2015

Pontifical Low Mass, Church Street, Dublin 7

On Saturday, 21st November, 2015, His Grace the Archbishop of Dublin honoured our Association by celebrating a Pontifical Low Mass for the feast of the Presentation in the Capuchin Church, Church of St. Mary of the Angels, Church Street, Dublin 7.  The choir of the Augustinian Church, John's Lane, lent great beauty to the ceremonies with their singing.  The Capuchin Community opened their doors and extended great hospitality to us for the use of the Church for Holy Mass, their refectory for refreshments afterwards, catered by the nearby Cinnemon Café.

Afterwards the Annual General Meeting of the Catholic Heritage Association of Ireland was held jointly with the first General Meeting of St. Laurence's Catholic Heritage Association.  Immediately following the election of our Committee, Judge Peter Smithwick introduced a talk by Lord Gill, retired Lord President of the Court of Session of Scotland.  Afterwards, Judge Smithwick made presentations to some of the members of the Assocation for distinguished service over the years.  The afternoon concluded with Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament given by Fr. Padraig, O.F.M.Cap.

Wednesday, 18 November 2015

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (c. 750 - 1161)(Walsh)

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 106 ff:

St. Sedulius son of Luaith is called bishop and abbot of Dublin as those were synonymous terms. Many abbots distinguished by their merit were promoted to the episcopacy without having sees attached to their places of residence. Such was his neighbor and contemporary the abbot and bishop Ferfugill of Clondalkin. Offices perfectly distinct were thus vested in the same person as it was necessary that episcopal functions should be exercised within the precincts of monastic establishments too remote from a regularly fixed see.

Besides assistant bishops such as coadjutors there were in Ireland others of a more subordinate dignity. Of this latter description the annals of Ireland make mention. To minister more effectually to the spiritual wants of his flock who might have dwelt at a distance from the abode of the bishop it was sometimes deemed prudent to remedy such an inconvenience by selecting priests in the remote districts to whom was confided the care of the faithful and that such clergymen were invested with a sort of episcopal jurisdiction appears certain but whether dignified always with the holy order of the episcopate is a question as yet to be decided. Some maintain it as the more probable that they were not exalted to this dignity others allow that they were consecrated and that they could with the permission of the ordinary confer the orders of deaconship and the priesthood. Other writers hold the opinion that they were always and without exception invested with the order of the episcopacy.

In Ireland, the usage of conferring consecration on those ecclesiastics appears to have been generally adopted. In the early annals of the kingdom they are represented as persons belonging to the episcopal order such an ecclesiastic as we treat of is honored with the appellation of bishop and among the Irish as there was but one name for bishops and chorepiscopi it is often difficult to determine whether this class of ecclesiastics were the ordinaries of sees or the subordinates. If we find mention of bishops who discharged episcopal functions in different dioceses or provinces we are to suppose that they acted in the capacity of assistants as the discipline of the Church obliged the ordinary of each see to exercise the duties of his order within the limits of his own diocese.

Cormac was living in 890 When Dublin was besieged by Gregory king of Scotland and the inhabitants were reduced to extremity Cormac a man of singular virtues and of upright life was deputed to lay before the king of Scotland the distressed state of the city. The King absolutely refused to extend any hope until the city was surrendered to his discretion and on being given up he forthwith advanced on foot till he came to the bishop and falling down on his knees he reverently kissed the crucifix which the prelate bore and ratified the wishes of the bishop.

Donatus was the first amongst the Ostmen or Danes who was bishop of Dublin. By some he is called Dunan. He built by the aid of Sitricus the cathedral of the Holy Trinity in the heart of the city of Dublin about the year 1038 to which Sitric gave considerable landed possessions. Donatus lived to an advanced age died on the 6th of May 1074 and was buried in his own cathedral in the upper part of the chancel on the right.

Patrick called in the Annals of the Four Masters Giolla Patricianus was elected bishop of Dublin at the instance of Gotred king of the Isle of Man who conquered Dublin and the adjacent country. He was sent to England to receive consecration from Lanfranc archbishop of Canterbury with an epistle to the following effect. "To Lanfranc the venerable metropolitan of the Holy Church of Canterbury the clergy and people of Dublin tender their bounden obedience. It is known unto your fatherhood that the Church of Dublin the metropolis of Ireland is bereft of her pastor and destitute of her ruler. Wherefore we have elected a priest called Patrick a person whom we thoroughly know one noble both by birth and morals well imbued in apostolical and ecclesiastical discipline in faith a Catholic and in the interpretation of Scripture wary in the tenets of the Church well versed and whom we desire without delay to be ordained our bishop that under God he may rule over us orderly and profit us and that we under his government may exercise a spiritual warfare with security. Because the integrity of the ruler is the safety of the subject and where safety of obedience is there is the sound form of doctrine."

Patrick was consecrated and made unto Lanfranc promise of submission and obedience in all things pertaining to the Christian religion. Patrick was an Ostman and the Danes of the sea ports being more inclined to attribute their conversion to the Anglo Saxons than to the Irish and who moreover considered William the Conqueror and the Normans their countrymen did not deem it politic to have their bishops derive their sanction from the see of Armagh hence they applied to the English primate for the consecration of their bishops. Patrick governed the see about ten years and being sent to England by King Turlough on business to Lanfranc perished by shipwreck on the 10th of October 1084.

Donat O'Hanly succeeded by similar authority as his predecessor was consecrated by Lanfranc AD 1085. Having spent some time in the pursuit of useful learning in Ireland he passed over to England and became a Benedictine monk at Canterbury. With Lanfranc to whom he also made profession of obedience Donatus was a particular favorite he gave him several presents books and church ornaments for his cathedral. This prelate died of a plague in 1095 leaving a reputation among his countrymen for industry learning and sagacity.

Samuel O'Hanley, nephew of Donatus succeeded AD 1095 by similar authority; was also a Benedictine; obtained from Lanfranc vouchers of his consecration. Soon after his return to Ireland he expelled some monks from the cathedral of the Holy Trinity stripped the church of the books and ornaments which the archbishop of Canterbury had bestowed on it and commanded the cross to be carried before him Lanfranc laving heard of those doings remonstrated with the bishop of Dublin and desired Malchus, bishop of Waterford to expostulate with him. Samuel died on the 4th of July AD 1121.

Gregory the First, archbishop of Dublin, was elected in 1121 and went to England to receive consecration from the archbishop of Canterbury. He brought letters from the king in his favor and also from the clergy and people of Dublin in which it was notified that the bishops of Ireland, particularly the primate of Armagh, had taken great hatred towards them because they would not obey the orders of the said bishops but showed themselves always willing to live under the jurisdiction of the see of Canterbury. He was consecrated at Lambeth by Ralph, archbishop of Canterbury, and made the usual profession of obedience to him.

Having presided over the see of Dublin thirty one years the archiepiscopal dignity was conferred upon him at the council of Kells held under John Paparo legate from the Holy See in 1152. The distribution of sees has been already noticed in the life of St. Malachy of Armagh and the names of the bishops who attended are also enumerated. Besides the bishops there were three thousand ecclesiastics present at this synod though at this synod were men of acknowledged sanctity and ecclesiastics of unblemished character though the purity of the native priesthood of Ireland was above reproach a fact to which Gerald Barry reluctantly assents and one which is particularly avowed in the thirteenth canon of the council held by Archbishop Comyn in 1186 bearing testimony to the chastity for which the Irish clergy were always remarkable. Moore in his History of Ireland draws an inference from a canon of this synod enacted against marriages in the prohibited degrees of kindred unfavorable to the Irish clergy and that they assimilated themselves to many of the clergy on the Continent who disregarded the salutary discipline of celibacy. The conduct of the lay usurpers of the see of Armagh has left the imputation on this see alone and it is worthy of notice that the Irish annals do not record instances of profligacy among the priesthood of Ireland until the adventurers of England introduced their system of morals. The Archbishop Gregory died on the 8th of October AD 1161 having sat forty years. He was a wise man and well skilled in languages.

Sunday, 27 September 2015

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (- c. 750)(Walsh)

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 98 ff:


Dublin was only an episcopal see until the pallium was first conferred on its prelate by John Paparo cardinal legate at the council of Kells in 1152 at that time the see of Cashel ranked before Dublin as St Malachy O'Moore sought the pallium for the sees of Armagh and Cashel only and in the distribution by the cardinal of the palliums to the four dioceses of Ireland which are now archbishopricks, the see of Dublin was the third in the series. Dublin is now reckoned as the second see of Ireland and its prelate is styled primate of Ireland in accordance with the directions of the holy see anxious as it was to terminate the controversy that so often arose between the primates of Armagh and archbishops of Dublin regarding the right of precedence as might be observed in the history of the prelates of Armagh. Dublin, the metropolis of Ireland, has two cathedrals, Christ Church and St Patrick's, a peculiarity in which Saragossa alone participates. Both have been forcibly seized by those intruders whom the persecutors of England have sent amongst the people of our country to plunder and spoliate while the descendants of the pious founders and the steadfast adherents of the ancient faith were obliged to worship their God in the most obscure lanes and alleys of the city. Christ Church was erected about the year 1038 and St. Patrick's in 1190 on the site of an old church which was said to have been erected by St. Patrick both cathedrals are situated within the city and liberties of Dublin.

To the see of Dublin was united that of Glendalough in the year 1214 on the death of William Piro the last recognized bishop the union of those sees was ratified by Pope Innocent III on the 25th of February 1215 and again Honorius III confirms the acts of his predecessors in this affair. A controversy having arisen between the chapter of St. Patrick's and Robert de Bedford the dean of Glendalough and afterwards bishop of Lismore the subject was referred by the Pope to Felix O'Ruadan, archbishop of Tuam, who by his decree pronounced in favor of the chapter of Glendalough and which the Pope HonoriusIII also confirmed. The archbishops of Dublin did not obtain quiet possession of the see of Glendalough until a surrender of it was made in the Cathedral of St Patrick by Dennis White who had been the bishop in opposition to the regal authority. Since his surrender Glendalough is become a desert the mountains which gird the valley cast a gloom over its scene contracting every prospect to the eye which looks on the venerable ruins of the sanctuary of St. Kevin its awful and melancholy appearance reminds the beholder that this spot was particularly adapted for a life of prayer and meditation. By the union of Glendalough with Dublin the far famed city memorable for its religious edifices has gone not only to decay but has become the receptacle of robbers and outlaws.

St. Patrick is said to have blessed Dublin and to have foretold its future greatness and prosperity. Saint Livinus, bishop of Dublin, was a native of Ireland aud according to some of royal extraction. He was born in the reign of Colman Rimhe who was king of Ireland in the beginning of the seventh century. Livinus is said to have been instructed by Benignus a priest and after the death of his master to have retired into a desert with three companions Foillan, Elias and Kilian, where he employed his time in transcribing books in order to procure sustenance for himself and the poor. He passed over into Britain and remained five years under the direction of Augustine who ordained him priest and having returned to his native country he was promoted to the dignity of bishop but his see is not known though he is accounted as bishop of Dublin. Urged by zeal for the conversion of those who knew not the true God he set out from Ireland with the former companions of his solitude. Arrived in Belgium having left the care of his Church in Ireland to the Archdeacon Sylvanus he was received with great kindness by Floribert abbot of two monasteries at Ghent one of which was called that of St. Bavo who was buried there and for whom Livinus had a great veneration and whose epitaph he also wrote at the request of Floribert. On the tomb of St. Bavo he celebrated daily the sacrifice of the mass during thirty days that he remained. Having performed those acts of charity and devotion he proceeded on his mission through Flanders and Brabant Berna and Craphraildis two sisters received him with great attention and he there restored the sight of Ingilbert the son of Craph aildis which was lost for thirteen years. He received from the people much opposition and vexation of which he complained in his epistle to Floribert and in which he declared his hope and foreknowledge of his suffering martyrdom. Soon after he was attacked by a multitude of Pagans at Escha near Hauthem one of whom was particularly conspicuous in torturing him Walbert extracted his tongue with nippers and threw it to the dogs but it was miraculously restored. Having cruelly beaten and tortured him he was decapitated on the 12th of November 656. His hostess Craphraildis and her son Brixius who was baptized by the Saint a few days before they also put to death. The remains of St Livinus and Brixius were deposited in one grave by his disciples at Hauthem and near them those of Craphraildis. The memory of Livinus is still greatly revered in Belgium.

The poetical epistle of Livinus as well as the epitaph of St Bavo do honor to the country of his birth. In the decree of Pope Benedict XTV dated the 1st of July 1747 express mention is made of Livinus as bishop of Dublin.

St. Wiro, a native of Ireland the son of Cuan the son of Lugid is said to have been of an ancient family in Corobaschin County of Clare and of which St. Senanus of Enniscathy was sprung. Wiro is said to have travelled to Rome and to have been there consecrated bishop on his return to have governed some see which he afterwards resigned that he might lead a more secluded life He repaired to Gaul where he was graciously received by Pepin Heristall who regarded him with veneration and who made his confession to him barefoot Pepin assigned him a dwelling at Mons Petri now Odilieberg in the diocese of Liege where he died on the 8th of May but the year of his decease is not known. According to Harris his death was in 650 but at this time Pepin was not vested with great power until 680. We may then place his death later than this year. He was buried in the oratory which had erected and in consequence of its collegiate church having transferred to Ruremond a part of the saint's remains were hither and another portion reverentially preserved at Utrecht. He called bishop of Dublin. It was usual with foreigners to assign to Dublin as it became the capital of Ireland some bishops who had to the Continent.

St Disibod was born in Ireland of a noble family and was remarkable for his genius and learning. He was ordained priest in the year of his age and soon after elected bishop and though Dublin is assigned as his see there is not sufficient authority to sustain the assertion. Having governed his see ten years he was driven from it by the insolence of the people and having resigned in 675 he abandoned his native country and associating with him three learned and devout men Gisualdus, Clement and Sallust travelled into Germany where he moved about preaching the Gospel for ten years at last he came to a high woody mountain which the owner of the country conferred upon him and there he settled and practised the life of a hermit many the Benedictine order flocked to him and on this mountain he erected a monastery which was called Mount Disibod. He lived thirty years in exercises of great austerity and there died worn out with age on the 8th of July in the eighty first year of his existence. Hildegardis a nun who was educated at Mount Disibod or Disenburg under the abbess Jutta wrote his life which was published by Surius. The year of his death is not known.

Gualafer or Gallagher is mentioned as bishop of Dublin of whom nothing is known except having baptized his successor St Rumold.

St. Rumold was the son of David an Irish prince and was heir to his father's principality. By Gualafir he was instructed in learning and virtue and through piety having taken a journey to Rome he abandoned his right to his inheritance. He passed first into Britain thence into Gaul preaching wherever he went the Gospel of Christ. It is said in his life written by Theodoric and published by Surius that before engaging on his pilgrimage that he was consecrated for the see of Dublin. He travelled over the Alps and reached Rome where he received the apostolic approbation of his labors. Having made some delay in Rome he left the city repassed into Gaul and came to Mechlin where Odo or Ado count of the place together with his wife received him with great kindness and prevailed on him to settle there. He assigned him a place called Ulmus from the numerous elm trees growing in it. Here he founded a monastery. Mechlin being raised into an episcopal see Rumoldus was made its first bishop.

The holy bishop planted the true faith everywhere about Mechlin with such zeal and earnestness that he is justly styled their apostle. At length two villains one of them thinking that he was possessed of money the other through revenge because the saint reprimanded him for living in adultery attacked him and having severely wounded him in the head put an end to his existence on the 24th of June 775 and in order to conceal their crime threw his body into a river and on its being discovered by a heavenly light Count Odo removed it and gave it an honorable interment in St. Stephen's church. His remains were afterwards translated to a church in Mechlin dedicated to his memory and there preserved in a splendid silver shrine. His festival is observed on the 3d of July as the day of his martyrdom took place on the day sacred to John the Baptist. A shrine constructed in 1369 for his relics cost 66,000 florins. In the wars of 1580 it was broken up and sold Norris when commanding the English troops rifled the cathedral of Mechlin destroyed the shrine and scattered the relics of St. Rumold but the relics were collected again deposited in a new shrine of far more elegant design and about one third the cost of the first. It is exhibited in the cathedral.

Monday, 14 September 2015

Sunday, 13 September 2015

Mass for the Holy Name of Mary

On 12th September, the monthly exercises of the Sodality of Our Lady took place in St. Joseph's Church, Berkeley Road, Dublin 7. A Latin Mass for the feast of the Holy Name of Mary was offered.

Thursday, 3 September 2015

Latin Mass Pilgrimage to Wicklow Town

St. Patrick's Church, is set strikingly on a hill overlooking the scenic and historic coastal town of Wicklow.  Although the area has been populated for thousands of years, the town itself was settled by the vikings about the year 800.  To that extent, it is older even than Dublin City.  The Irish name Cill Mhantáin, or Church of the toothless, is replaced by the Norse Vikló, or harbour of the meadow.
The town would have found itself in the Gaelic Diocese of Glendalough, which extended across the whole of what is now the Archdiocese of Dublin.  Viking Dublin did not have a Bishop until Donatus was consecrated in 1038.  At the Synod of Rathbreasail in 1118, Dublin is not mentioned.  At the Synod of Kells in 1152, the Diocese of Glendalough was divided, giving the northern portion of its territory to Dublin, which also received a Metropolitan pallium.  Gregory became the first Archbishop of Dublin and was succeeded by St. Laurence O'Toole.  In 1185, King John decreed the union of Glendalough to Dublin but it wasn't sanctioned by the Pope until 1216.
In the valley between the Catholic Church and Anglican church and at the medieval town gate lie the ruins of a Franciscan Abbey, built about the year 1265.  Only elements of the south transept and nave are visible today.
As already noted in the post on the pilgrimage to Bray, the facade of the Church is remarkably similar to that of the original facade of the Church of the Holy Redeemer, Bray, and to other Churches by W.H. Byrne.  It was completed about 1840 to an unknown architect's design, where there is a gap in Byrne's list of works.  Therefore, it may cautiously be attributed to him. 
Members and friends of St. Laurence's Catholic Heritage Association made a pilgrimage there on Saturday, 22nd August, including a Mass celebrated by a Priest of the Diocese.