Tuesday, 16 May 2017

The Archiepiscopal See of Dublin (1823-)(Walsh)

Archbishop Murray of Dublin

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy, 1854, c. xvi, p. 133 ff:

Daniel Murray succeeded in 1823 was born on the 18th of April 1768 at Sheepwalk in the parish of Redcross and county of Wicklow At the age of sixteen years he was sent to Salamanca where he studied for some years and on his return to Ireland was appointed curate in the parish of St Paul Dublin whence he was shortly afterwards removed to that of Arklow There he remained until obliged by the outrages of 1798 to seek refuge n the metropolis He became attached to St Andrew's parish and after a short interval was removed to St Mary's In 1805 he was named prebendary of Wicklow and parish priest of Clon tarf but the latter preferment he declined In 1809 at the instance of Doctor Troy he was appointed archbishop of Hieropolis and coadjutor of Dublin and consecrated on the 30th of November in this year the Archbishop Troy officiating as consecrator and the bishops Delany and Ryan as assistants Having sojourned several months in the French capital in the year following he had the satisfaction of procuring an ordinance whereby the right of the archbishops and bishops of Ireland to exercise superintendence over the property belonging to Irish houses was recognised and in accordance with their wishes the Sieur Ferris administrator general was ordered to resign his functions and to deliver up to his successors the moneys deeds movables and effects belonging to the Irish colleges in France

On the death of John Thomas Troy in 1823 Dr Murray succeeded to the see of Dublin and in 1825 was one of the prelates who drew up the pastoral instructions to the clergy and laity of Ireland exhorting the former to the fulfillment of all their obligations the steadfast maintenance of an exemplary life as by it the pastor preaches more eloquently than in his sermons or exhortations the vigilant administration of the holy sacraments as nothing can excuse from this all important duty as nothing can exempt from it not labor or fatigue nor watching nor hunger or thirst heat nor cold In this important duty there is no just cause of delay Zeal in promoting the honor and love of God but in order that zeal be efficient and productive of fruit it must be directed by prudence and charity charity which is benign bears all suffers all vigilance in the instruction of children because on their moral and religious education not only depends their own happiness but also that of the church and the state labor for them in good and evil report to obtain it when it could be without a compromise of their precious faith or of that salutary discipline which surrounds and protects it as the walls and ramparts do the city Turn away from them every insidious wile of the deceiver and while studying to have peace with all men forget not that you are the watchmen on the towers of the city of God to detect the ambuscades of her enemies Engrave on the tender heart of the little ones the obedience they owe to God their parents their prince and to all in authority over them to inspire them with a horror of vice and a love of virtue Your door is the first at which the cry of distress or of misery is first heard Let the poor find in you the sympathy of a father the bowels of tenderness and of compassion Remember says this instruction that an ecclesiastic whether in the sanctuary or dwelling in the world should appear a man of superior mind and of exalted virtue a man whose example can improve society whose manners irreproachable can reflect honor on the church and add to the glory and splendor of religion a man whose modesty should be apparent to all as the apostle recommends and who should be clothed with justice as the prophet expresses it What Dr Murray inculcated he did not forget to practice in his own life he stood forth as a tower of strength to his faith when it was assailed by the insidious machinations of the British government The venerable head of the Catholic church Pius VII having been a captive in the French capital Monsignor Quarantoti vice prelect of the propaganda at Rome charged in his absence with the care of the sacred missions and furnished with all pontifical powers for that purpose through the means of Dr Poynter vicar apostolic of the London district and Mac Pherson then rector of the Scotch college at Rome consented to take a prominent part in the plot of the vetoistical arrangement by which the appointment of the Catholic hierarchy of Ireland would be vested in the sovereign of England and the sovereign also ol another creed Quarantoti then in age and weak minded caused an in strument in favor of this odious measure to be executed at Rome and had it forwarded to the vicar apostolic of London to be by him communicated to all the bishops and vicars apostolic of the British empire In 1810 the Irish prelates passed a merited vote of thanks to the Right Reverend Doctor Milner vicar apostolic of the Midland district of England for his uniform and uncompromising firmness in resisting the hated question of the veto and then entered their solemn protest against the reception of official documents coming from Rome until the supreme pastor of the Christian fold would be restored to the full exercise of his liberty Whatever may have been the motives that prompted the authors of the rescript whether of involving the hierarchy in new troubles or causing discontent and confusion throughout the kingdom if such was the result on which they calculated the experience of a few months sufficiently attested the success of their expectations The rescript of Quarantoti immediately on its publication in May 1814 was received by the Catholics of Ireland lay and clerical with feelings of marked contempt and unmitigated abhorrence Through every diocese of Ireland it was reprobated the archdiocese of Dublin was the first to give expression to its indignation and at a public meeting in Bridge street chapel on the 12th of May 1814 Dr Blake PP of SS Michael's and John's presiding the rescript was declared non obligatory not only inexpedient but highly detrimental to the dearest interests of religion and in fine they called on the Catholic clergy and people of Ireland to unite with them in an earnest entreaty that the pre lates would remonstrate against this document and laybefore the father of the faithful now reinstated the evils that would inevitably arise from its adoption See Appendix the 5th In the meeting of the prelates which was convened at Maynooth on the 27th of the same month the fate of the odious rescript was decided It was declared as not mandatory and for the purpose of opening a communication with the holy see it was resolved to depute two prelates to Rome who would submit the unanimous and well known sentiments of the prelates to the supreme pastor On this important business the Most Rev Dr Murray and Dr Milner were sent as delegates to the holy see Fontana whom Pius VII on his departure from Rome brought with him as his private theologian and Consalvi then secretary of state were the media by which the rescript was passed into the hands of the British minister The letter itself was penned and executed by Fontana but was obtained from the Pontiff at the request and persuasive suggestions of Cardinal Consalvi It was also a time of danger and of terror when the agency of those individuals was made available by the English cabinet in exerting their extensive influence over the mind of their generous but unsuspecting master Cardinal Consalvi born of an ancient family originally of Urbino entered when young into the diocesan seminary of Frascati Henry cardinal duke of York and brother to Charles Edward Stuart was then bishop of that see Consalvi in deacon's orders secured the patronage of the cardinal duke and soon after obtained the prelate's cloak and became auditor of the rota or judge in the court of civil appeal The father of the faithful Pius VI a prisoner in France in 1798 the cardinals were dispersed by the immediate orders of the French Directory On this occasion Consalvi followed the fortunes of his patron who deprived of all his revenues obtained from the sovereign of Great Britain a considerable annuity renouncing at the time his pretensions to the crown of England A vacancy having occurred in the papal chair by the death of Pope Pius VI Consalvi was deputed by the cardinal duke of York as his proxy being himself unable to attend the conclave assembled at Venice from age and infirmity Consalvi was thus enabled to disclose the powerful resources of his genius and during the four months that the conclave lasted displayed extraordinary talent for business and particularly in whatever regarded foreign courts In March 1800 he was advanced to the office of secretary and presented with the portfolio of state The French troops forced to evacuate Rome the holy father Pius VII proceeded to his capital and the holy see anxious to consult for the welfare of religion in France Consalvi then adorned with the purple undertook the management of an enterprise from which cardinals of more matured age and experience shrunk in despondency After some fruitless negotiation the hopes of Consalvi vanished and the apprehensions of men of experience are suddenly realized On the 6th of July 1809 the venerable pontiff was forced into captivity but the uncompromising firmness which he displayed in a prison baffled the projects of his ambitious persecutor and saved the churches of France from ruin and schism a sympathy universal and instantaneous seized all Europe and with the courts and nations the sufferings of the supreme pontiff became the theme of admiration The arm of resistance is nerved against his unfeeling jailer and heaven itself struck dumb his councils and in the midst of victory his legions perish in the snows of Russia and by the combined efforts of his enemies the hero of a hundred battles is driven from his imperial throne and the venerable captive returns triumphant to his dominions The holy father now restored Consalvi once more assumed the exercise of his former functions as minister or secretary of state It is supposed that Consalvi having visited London received there elementary lectures on vetoism and that on his arrival at the Congress of Vienna he applied to Rome for full powers to settle the point of the veto definitively with Lord Castlereagh the British minister The delegates of the Irish prelates were now at Rome and rendered the authorities there more wary than the Vice Prefect Quarantoti and to the application for definitive powers Consalvi was instructed to confer merely with the British plenipotentiary referring to the pontiff himself any definitive arrangement His reception at Rome was most flattering He was considered as the liberator of the pontifical states and in the allocution of the pope before a full consistory of cardinals on the 14th of September ber 1815 Consalvi is emphatically styled the most meritorious son that had ever served the holy see On his return to Rome he assumed the various functions of his office and constituted a new tribunal to which he gave the general title of a congregation of ecclesiastical affairs and it was established with the avowed purpose of guiding the secretary of state in those affairs of religion upon which he might have communications from the ambassadors of foreign powers Such had been the elevated position of this clever statesman when the destinies of Europe were once more in the balance by the escape of Napoleon from the Isle of Elba Pius VII having arrived at Genoa was secure under the protection of a British fleet and from this city was issued a document connected with the question of the veto dated the 26th of April 1815 and addressed under the signature of Cardinal Litta prefect of the Propaganda to Doctors Poynter of London Milner of the midland district of England and Troy archbishop of Dublin The letter though not mandatory but of a permissive character and even that expressed under certain conditions created an unusual ferment throughout the country In justice to the memory of Cardinal Litta prefect of the Propaganda it should be remarked that he had declared against this letter that he counselled its non execution and that against his own decided opinion he affixed his signature See Appendix the 6th In the midst of uproar and confusion which pervaded the masses of the people a report being spread that the pope had been deceived into some concessions favorable to the views of the British cabinet the Catholic prelates of Ireland assembled at Dublin on the 23d of August 1815 and by their resolutions proved themselves the intrepid and faithful guardians of their religion The least interference direct or indirect in the appointment of bishops for the Catholic church in Ireland was pronounced to be essentially injurious and eventually destructive to the Roman Catholic religion in this country and declaring themselves bound by all canonical and constitutional means in their power to deprecate and oppose it The decisive reprobation of this odious question enkindled the enthusiasm of the people and the clergy who received it with applause and encomiums and following up their declaration with effect an episcopal deputation composed of two bishops Doctor Murray coadjutor of Dublin and Doctor Murphy of Cork with the Very Rev Doctor Blake archdeacon of Dublin were directed to proceed to Rome with a remonstrance While the prelates by their fearless resistance to the hated question of the veto sincerely espoused the cause of the Irish church and its independence dependence the Catholics held an aggregate meeting in Clarendon street chapel Dublin Sir Thomas Esmonde bart presiding The laity on this occasion renew their expression of esteem and gratitude to their hierarchy for the manly and energetic manner in which they denounced any measure whereby control in the nomination of the Irish bishops would be vested in the crown of England It was also deemed prudent as the prelates had formed an episcopal deputation now prepared to set out for the eternal city to adopt a similar mode of proceeding It consisted of Sir Thomas Esmonde bart Owen O Connor esq and the Rev Richard Hayes a man of tried integrity and who was intimately acquainted with the customs and language of the Roman court acting as their secretary In the fourteenth year of his age this disinterested and patriotic man repaired to Rome filled as he was with ardor to embrace the ecclesiastical state and having there attached himself to the college of St Isidore he made his solemn profession in the church of that convent as a member of the Franciscan institute Having devoted eight years to the study of the sacred Scriptures of church history and canon law he resolved to return to his native country and accordingly in August 1811 he undertook his journey homewards which must have been at the time extremely hazardous Father Hayes was in Cork attached to his convent when he received a letter from Mr Hay inclosing the resolutions of the aggregate meeting The invitation though flattering was one of danger and of difficulty and one also imperilling his health still full of zeal for his country and her religion he responded to the call and in two days after arrived in Dublin In the interim the lay delegates having declined the journey to Rome Daniel O Connell read to the association from Sir Thomas Esmonde a letter proposing Doctor Dromgoole then in Italy as a substitute The proposal being unapproved the plan of a deputation was nigh abandoned but the danger of the veto becoming more serious and alarming the remonstrance to his holiness was drawn up approved and placed in the hands of Father Hayes thereby constituting him the authorized delegate of the Irish Catholics to the holy see Without delay he set out on his journey observing to his friends that difficulties and dangers he set at defiance for said he while Ireland hates the veto she will support me despite of all intrigue if I serve her with integrity At London he obtained a passport from the French ambassador and after some delay in France which was then occupied by foreign troops and a journey of five weeks he arrived at Rome two days after the episcopal deputies The task imposed on the deputies required firmness in its execution and a devotedness to the cause of creed and country A faction in Home both Irish and English who would fetter the Irish church and hand it over in manacles to the British government had by their in trigue and misrepresentation poisoned the public mind and produced on the cardinals impressions unfavorable to the cause of the delegates Calumnies were circulated by emissaries and intermeddlers in ecclesiastical affairs while the machinery of diplomatic intrigue was artfully kept together by the British cabinet Furious paragraphs from the Irish press which advocated the veto were forwarded to Rome assailing the delegation and remonstrance of the laity and describing it as the work of a junta both turbulent and hot headed in Dublin However as the assertion was unanthenticated it was overthrown by the weight of the genuine documents which the delegate of the Catholics produced In the Propaganda it was discredited by the cardinal prefect and Con salvi secretary of state was constrained to admit the credentials the remonstrance of the Irish people and the authority of their representative The episcopal deputies immediately on their arrival in Rome deemed it advisable to have an interview with his eminence Cardinal Consalvi by him they were received with peculiar marks of attention to whom they explained the object of their mission and soon after obtained their introductory audience with his holiness In this the first interview the resolutions and remonstrance were submitted to the supreme Pontiff and were by him directed to refer them for further consideration to the minister of state being thus detached from the cognizance of the Propaganda and placed in the hands of Consalvi On the 9th of November 1815 Father Hayes through the agency of Cardinal Litta prefect of the propaganda and the general of his order was admitted to his first interview with the sovereign pontiff Conceiving that the Propaganda was the regular and legitimate tnbunal for the investigation of an ecclesiastical cause Father Hayes was determined not to allow the documents with which he was entrusted to pass into any other channel His holiness was however pleased to assure him that the question should be referred to a congregation of cardinals that the prefect of Propaganda should be consulted and that his own care and inspection should not be wanting and accordingly the papers of the lay deputation were referred to the cardinal secretary of state For some time the remonstrances of the bishops and Catholics of Ireland lay in the hands of the secretary without any steps being taken to bring the matter to a discussion but at length it was referred by him to the tribunal of ecclesiastical affairs though this tribunal was much swayed by the influence of Consalvi yet the delegates had confidence and anticipated success particularly as men of discretion and experience were to pronounce on this important question But their hopes of having an immediate decision were marred as Cardinal Litta was in a few day after sent to Milan as ambassador extraordinary on a gratula tory deputation to the emperor of Austria but before his departure he caused explanatory letters to be addressed to Archbishop Troy of Dublin and to Doctors Poynter and Milner on the nature and tendency of the document which was issued from Genoa In the absence of the amiable Cardinal Litta were found motives of procrastination by Consalvi secretary of state with whom were had several conferences but nothing definitive was attempted With Fon tana the secretary of the tribunal of ecclesiastical affairs and the vice prefect similar efforts were unsuccessful and the delegates at length resolved on removing the cause of the Irish church to the tribunal of the Propaganda and submitting it to the cognizance of its prefect who was the protector and guardian of her rights Accordingly Father Hayes on the 22d of December obtained an audience with the Pontiff presenting on this occasion a memorial entreating the removal of the discussion to the Propaganda and also protesting against the interference of state functionaries in a question of a religious nature His interview terminated with directions to hold over those papers until the return of Cardinal Litta from Milan to which Father Hayes respectfully submitted leaving at the same time the memorial and the protest against Consalvi in the hands of his holiness The episcopal delegates had about the same time their second audi dience with the holy father More than three months had elapsed and no progress whatever had been made towards a decision nay even the project of submitting it to the tribunal of ecclesiastical affairs had been apparently abandoned Still intent on leaving nothing untried the delegates applied to Cardinal Doria vice prefect of the Propaganda a functionary who altogether declined interfering but he recommended the applicants to await the return of Cardinal Litta and promising them his support The episcopal deputies on the 5th of January 1816 demanded their passports and prepared to return to Ireland On the following day their lordships received from the cardinal secretary of state an official instrument as is supposed drawn up by Monsignor Masio the private secretary of Latin letters to his holiness it proved to be a direct justification of the Genoese production instead of revoking it as the delegates insisted and it contained some unmerited remarks on the general proceedings of the episcopal body in Ireland The prelates on the Sth of January returned the letter to the minister of state had their final audience of his holiness repeated their objections to the letter of Consalvi and took their leave In a third interview with his holiness Father Hayes enlarged fully on the bearing of the subject The pontiff seemed deeply affected and alarmed lest the Catholics of Ireland might be subjected once more to persecution Holy father said the delegate we dread not persecution but we dread your holiness sanction of a measure which we must resist as we would thereby be deprived of the sympathies of the holy see which have ever consoled us under the fierce trials we have endured for our attachment to the centre of unity On the mind of the pontiff these and other observations made a deep impression and the delegate was assured that his business should be reconsidered The Pope on his part had no objection to the measure as he wished not to preserve any real or apparent influence in Ireland that might give umbrage to any party And Cardinal Litta who at this time returned from Milan and who frequently signified that the congregation of Propaganda entertained no views whatever of patronage and sought only the advancement of merit resting on proper recommendations with regard to the candidates who would be put in nomination though unwilling as he was to enter on the immediate discussion of the subject was satisfied to patronise the measure and as Cardinal Consalvi had forwarded the letter already alluded to and which the episcopal delegates returned he decided on leaving the question untouched until its reception with the Irish prelates would be known in the meantime arrived a letter from Doctor Coppinger bishop of Cloyne in which was given to the cause of the veto a deadly stroke and by the special direction of his holiness was placed in the hands of Cardinal Litta Though the cause of vetoism was tottering at Rome yet its advocates in Ireland left no artifice untried to prop up its feeble machinery Their meetings were generally held in Eccles street and in order to obtain a favorable reception for their resolutions with the public they were duly seasoned with becoming obedience and respect for the holy see On Good Friday 1816 Dr Murray completed the overthrow of vetoism in his discourse on the Passion of our Redeemer Having arrived at that stage of his sufferings where he is represented as bound to a pillar his grace observed To this bound and suffering victim I would now implore the attention of those misguided Catholics who seem willing to impose new and disgraceful bands not indeed on his sacred person but on his mystical body that is his Church which was ever more dear to him than his personal liberty more dear to him than even his life Does not St Paul say Eph v 26 27 that for this mystical body he delivered himself up that he might present unto himself a glorious church having neither spot nor wrinkle but that it should be holy and without blemish And could we suppose that it would be more painful to him to submit his sacred hands to the ignominious cords than to see his church bound and fettered by restrictions which would render it less capable of fulfilling the object for which it was formed the object for which he poured out his most precious life I know that our mistaken brethren would not consent to yield any point which they deem essential and that they look not beyond what they consider safe and honorable conciliation But unhappily it is now too well known that the conciliation which is expected is such as would imply the degradation and enslavement of the sacred ministry And what virtuous Catholic would consent to purchase the chance of temporal advantages at the price of such a real spiritual calamity Oh if the stroke must come let it be from those who have so long sought the extinction of our religion but in the name of God let no Catholic press forward to share in the inglorious work let no one among us be found to say of his church as the treacherous disciple said of its divine founder What will you give me and I will deliver him it to you V Having depicted the sufferings of his country before the pontiff and having on bended knees implored protection for her invaded rights Daniel Murray by his stunning appeal discomfited the wiles of her enemies and by this heroic blow prostrated the strength of vetoism and shattered its hopes forever and to prove and to give the widest possible circulation to his words and to remove every doubt or mistake regarding their meaning he himself hastened to furnish the journals of the city with an authentic report of the sentiments he had uttered In April 1829 the long deferred measure of Catholic emancipation received the royal assent and those cruel and bloody enactments against the Roman Catholic faith which intolerance prompted by rapine and spoliation devised in the days of Queen Elizabeth were utterly abolished In the national enthusiasm which was evoked by the cause of religious toleration under the auspices of the Catholic Association soon after its foundation in the year 1823 the lofty and commanding position of seven millions of Catholic Irishmen became irresistible the fervid and powerful appeals of its leaders reached the most distant quarters of Europe they were wafted across the mighty Atlantic and were reechoed from the free shores of America the national enthusiasm combined in its favor wealth and influence stamped importance on its proceedings eloquence and talent were arrayed in its cause and the basis on which the cause of toleration rested was the sacred and immutable principle of justice While the Catholic association had rendered itself an object of admiration to the votaries of religious liberty the energy of its persevering action its moral power nay its vitality and the triumphant issue of its proceedings were all centred in Daniel O Connell Ireland's most faithful son and immortal patriot With him it originated under him it grew to manhood becoming a formidable yet a legal barrier to further aggression as well as an organized body directing its solid and compact machinery against the abuses which manacled the body and mind of Catholic Ireland While his vigilance guarded against surprise the genius of universal freedom was animated by the brilliant eloquence of the Liberator At length every man of reflection is awakened to sympathy with the sufferings of a brave generous yet patient people The liberal Protestant is equally aroused the liberal press gave its powerful assistance the nobility and gentry of Ireland meet in the metropolis and the moment which was ordained by an all wise and inscrutable Providence having at length arrived the Catholics of the British empire are emancipated the fetters of religious intolerance and persecution were shivered and the hero himself of an hundred fights was vanquished by the stern and united resolve of the Irish people led on by their immortal O Connell During the episcopacy of Dr Murray was founded the College of All Hallows which is a prodigy of national faith and Catholic enterprise It realizes the tendencies of the Irish people and shows what Ireland is ever ready to accomplish in the cause of religion reminding us at the same time what Catholic Ireland has done in ages long past in spreading the light of faith Though feara were entertained of the feasibility of the project still Ireland has erected the college given it inmates provides them maintenance and will continue to maintain those groups of young and ardent missionaries who diverge with the winds of heaven to every point where salvation is to be brought to Israel With promptitude the archbishop of Dublin listened to the young ecclesiastic whose piety and zeal conceived the plan of founding this college for the foreign missions he applauded the design encouraged it by his patronage he recommended its cause to the protection of the prelates he saw its onward career with delight and the Almighty prolonged the life of the venerable Daniel Murray who has been styled the De Sales of Ireland to behold its triumphant success When the ministers of England well acquainted with the unblemished life and high reputation of Dr Murray offered to confer upon him the distinguished post of privy councillor the archbishop of Dublin respectfully declined the honor proffered by a worthless minister who soon after procured the enactment of a penal measure against the title which Dr Murray enjoyed as well as the other members of the Catholic hierarchy.

Tuesday, 9 May 2017

Abbey of St. Mary les Dames, Dublin (Walsh)

From Walsh's History of the Irish Hierarchy: With the Monasteries of Each County, Biographical Notices of the Irish Saints, Prelates, and Religious, 1854, c. xliv, pps. 423:

Nunnery of St Mary les Dames without the east gate of the city which was thence called the gate of St Mary and the avenue leading from the castle to the university obtained the name of Dame street. In 1487 Lambert Simnell supported by many of the nobles was crowned king in the priory of the Holy Trinity by the name of Edward. The crown used on this occasion was borrowed from the statue of the blessed Virgin which stood in this nunnery. George Browne who was the schismatical and heretical bishop of Dublin united this church to that of St Werburgh.